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## Refractive index dispersion and Drude model

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**Refractive index dispersionand Drude model**Optics, Eugene Hecht, Chpt. 3**Dielectric**E-field Dielectrics Index of refraction: n • Electric field is reduced inside dielectric • Space charge partly cancels • E / Ev = e / e0 • Also possible for magnetic fields • but usually B = Bv and m = m0 • Result: light speed reduced v = c (e0 /e) = c/n < c • Wavelength also reduced l= l0 /n**Conventions**• Polarization of materials • Separate into material and vacuum parts • e E = e0 E + P • linear material: P = e0c E • Material part is due to small charge displacement • Similar equation for magnetic polarization • B / m = B / m0 + M • Most optical materials have m = m0 Refractive index • n2 = (e/e0) (m/m0) = [1 + P / (e0 E)] / [1 + m0 M/B] • Drop magnetic part • n2 = [1 + P / (e0 E)]**Material part of polarization**• Polarization due to small displacements • Examples: • Polar molecules align in field • Non-polar molecules – electron cloud distorts • Optical frequencies • Nucleus cannot follow fast enough • Too heavy • Consider mainly electron cloud Distorted electron cloud**Model of atom**• Lowest order – everything is harmonic oscillator Model atom as nucleus and electron connected by spring • Newton’s law: F = m a • Spring restoring force: FR = - k x = - m w02 x • Resonant freq of mass-spring: w0 = k/m • Driving force: FD = qe E • Damping force: Fg = - m g v Resultant equation: • qe E - m g dx/dt - m w02 x = m d2x/dt2 • Free oscillation: (E=0, g=0) • d2x/dt2 + w02 x = 0 • Use complex representation for E • E = E0 e i w t • Forced oscillation: • motion matched drive frequency • x = x0 e i w t • Result: x0 = (q/m) E0 / [w02 - w2 + igw]**Refractive index & dispersion**• Drude model • Polarization of atom • Define as charge times separation • PA = qe x • Material has many atoms: N • Material polarization: • P = qe x N Recall previous results • n2 = [1 + P / (e0 E)] • x0 = (q/m) E0 / [w02 - w2 + igw] Result is dispersionequation: Correction for real world complications: Sum over all resonances in material f is oscillator strength of each transition ~ 1 for allowed transition**Sample materials**Polar materials • Refractive index approx. follows formula • Resonances in UV • Polar materials also have IR resonances • Nuclear motion – orientation**Anomalous dispersion**Above all resonance frequencies • Dispersion negative • Refractive index < 1 • v > c X-ray region**Metals and plasma frequency**Plasma freq • “Free” conduction electrons – resonance at zero w0 = 0 • Metals become transparent at very high frequency – X-ray • Neglect damping • At low frequency n2 < 0 • refractive index complex • absorption • At high frequency • n becomes real • like dielectric • transparency**Skin depth in metals**Metal Density Ro f skin depth (microOhm cm) (GHz) (microns) Aluminum 2.70 g/cc 2.824; 478.59 0.12 Copper 8.89 g/cc 1.7241; 409.1 0.1033 Gold 19.3 g/cc 2.44; 403.8 0.12 Mercury 13.546 g/cc 95.783; 10,975. 0.15 Silver 10.5 g/cc 1.59; 260 0.12 Electrons not bound • Current can flow • Conductance s ~ 1/R causes loss • Maxwell’s equations modified • Wave solution also modified • Express as complex refractive index • ncomplex = nR – i a c / (2w) • E = E0 e -az/2 e i(kz-wt) • Result for propagation in metal: • I = I0 e -az , 1/a = skin depth Metals: 1/a << l • Example copper: • l = 100 nm, 1/a = 0.6 nm = l / 170 • l = 10 mm, 1/a = 6 nm = l / 1700 • l = 10 mm, 1/a = 0.2 mm = l / 50,000 • 1/a ~ l • Similar to n >> 1 • Strong reflection – not much absorption Drude -- low frequency limit w 0**Normal incidence reflection from metal**metal reflected E field incident Standing wave -- zero at surface Reflectivity of metals • Assume perfect conductor • No electric field parallel to interface • Reflectivity at normal incidence • (assume ni = 1) • Power reflected • R = r r* 1 for large absorption**Plasmons**• Assume w0 = 0 for conduction electrons -- keep damping • Transition occurs when optical frequency exceeds collision frequency • depends on dc resistivity • lower resistivity = higher frequency transition • Above collision frequency -- Plasmons • Plasmons quenched at plasma frequency • Example -- silver • s = 6.17 x 107 /W-m, wplasma = 9.65 x 1014 Hz (311 nm, 4 eV) • ne = 1/(13 fs) = 7.7 x 1013 Hz • plasmons beyond ~ 23.5 microns wavelength**conductivity**Displacement current Vacuum metal Nano optic RLC circuit L C metal metal dielectric Plasmons and nano optics • Small metal particles can act like inductors, capacitors • Maxwell’s equation for current density: • Separate into vacuum and metal parts • Vacuum (or dielectric) part is capacitor • Metal part is inductor plus series resistor • RLC circuit parameters • Resonance frequency w0=1/sqrt(LC) = wplasma • Resonance width Dw = R/L = ncollision • Structure geometry can increase L and C • Strong local field enhancement possible in capacitor**“Left hand” materials:(E in plane of incidence)**Ei Er Sign of e and m both negative • Strange properties • Refraction backward Example -- Eparallel, P-polarization Two components of E • Parallel to surface • Ei cos qi + - Er cos qr = Et cos qt • Perpendicular to surface • 1. Space charge attenuates Et • eiEi sin qi + erEr sin qr = etEt sin qt • Sign of et is negative • 2. Use Snell’s law • niEi + nrEr = ntEt • B is parallel to surface • same as perpendicular E • rparallel = (nt cos qi - ni cos qt) / (nt cos qi + ni cos qt) • tparallel = (2ni cos qi ) / (nt cos qi + ni cos qt) qi qr ni Interface nt q’t qt Et E’t Momentum Propagation direction E x B**E**k B Left handed materials - fabrication Need sign of e and m both negative • Problem: magnetic part usually ~1 • Solution: Fool the EM field • LC circuit – material in capacitor gap indirectly modifies magnetic material LC circuit Loops are inductors Gap is capacitor Artificial “left-hand” material